Common Definitions of Maritime Coverage’s
- October 17, 2018
- Posted by: thinkjcw
- Category: Safety Articles
The Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act and its extensions, provide
medical benefits, compensation for lost wages, and rehabilitation services to employees
who are injured during the course of employment or contract an occupational disease
related to employment. Survivor benefits also are provided if the work-related injury
causes the employee’s death. Situs – having “situs” means the work is on or adjacent to
Longshore – literally means “along the shore”. Refers to maritime employment, other than
work as a seaman. Includes work building and repairing ships, loading and unloading
ships, construction or repair of structures to enable waterborne commerce, and other work
on or near navigable waters in support of waterborne commerce.
Status – having “status” means the work is generally “maritime” in character, unless
specifically excluded in the Longshore and Harbor Workers Act. Work as an employee of
a political subdivision is also excluded.
USL&H – means the United States Longshore and Harbor Workers Compensation Act, a
federal law in many respects like any state’s Workers’ Compensation law, except that it
only applies to employers and employees engaged in maritime work.
Admiralty – refers to the common law of the sea, enforced by the federal Courts. Seamen
have certain rights and remedies against their employers under Admiralty Law, if injured
on the job or during a voyage.
Jones Act – a federal law that extended the Federal Employer’s Liability Act (FELA) to
give injured seamen the right to sue their employer in federal Admiralty courts for their
Maritime – generally means “pertaining to the sea”. In connection with the USL&H Act,
“maritime” work means work that meets the “situs” and “status” tests, including building
and repairing ships, loading and unloading ships, construction or repair of structures that
enable waterborne commerce, and other work on or near navigable waters in support of
waterborne commerce. Also references work in connection with the Jones Act.
Marina – a property or premises that provides waterfront facilities for recreational boating
activities, typically launching, docking, storing, fueling and incidental servicing of boats.
MEL – “Marine Employers Liability” coverage, often provided under a P & I policy or
monoline, to protect the employer against his liabilities under the Jones Act and Admiralty
law for injury to his employed seamen. Known as “Maritime Coverage” when provided as
an endorsement to a Workers’ Compensation Insurance Policy.
Navigable water – a body of water or waterway which enables travel (in any size vessel)
from one state to another or to the Gulf of Mexico or to an ocean.
Political subdivision – is a unit of the federal or any state, county, or municipal
government, or an agency established by one of them, such as a water district, or school
district, or a recreational district.
Seaman – a maritime employee who works on a “vessel”, contributes to the functioning of
the “vessel” and the accomplishment of its mission, and has a connection to the vessel or a
commonly owned group of vessels. The general working precedent is that an employee
needs to spend at least 30% of their time on this vessel or group of vessels to be considered
Vessel – is a ship, boat, barge, or navigable work platform of any size.
Marine Insurance Terminology
This is a general guide only, individual circumstances and policy forms vary.
Bareboat Charter- The charter of a vessel without captain/crew.
Blue Water Vessel – One that sails outside the U.S., typically ocean-going or to/from the
Brown Water Vessel – A vessel, most typically a tug/barge, that operates in the river
system or coastal U.S.
Bumbershoot – See umbrella.
Collision Liability – Liability for physical damage to another vessel you might hit.
Typically included in the hull policy up to the limit of that hull policy.
DBA – Defense Base Act – A federal workers compensation program for private workers
on a U.S. Defense base. It is usually required by contract, and is most frequently covered
as part of an international policy.
DOHSA – Death on the High Seas Act Available to seaman and non-seaman, A tort-based
action for anyone who is killed upon the high seas beyond U.S. territorial water.
Excess – See Umbrella.
Hull – Physical damage to your own vessel.
Jones Act – The Merchant Marine Act of 1920, allows seamen a remedy to sue their
employer for negligence in the event of injury or illness incurred in service of the vessel.
LOLL – Landing Owners Legal Liability – The inland version of Wharfingers Legal
Liability. See below.
M&C – Maintenance & Cure – An absolute, “no-fault” liability to seamen (captain and
crew). Maintenance is living expenses. Cure is medical expenses incurred until maximum
MEL – Maritime Employers Liability – A method of insuring an employer’s liability under
Admiralty law (Jones Act, Maintenance & Cure etc.) to his employees. It provides similar
coverage for employers as contained in a P&I policy. It does not cover Longshore or any
MGL – Marine General Liability – Similar to a normal general liability policy, it is
something adapted to expand or eliminate the watercraft exclusion. Typically includes
products/complete operations and all usual CGL coverage’s. It is often based on older
versions of CGL forms.
MOLL – Marina Operators Legal Liability – Coverage for physical damage to vessels in
the care custody and control. Often limited to “private pleasure vessels” only.
OCSLA – Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act – A federal workers compensation act which
allows fixed platform workers on the Outer Continental Shelf access to the Longshore Act.
ORVA – Oceanographic Research Vessel Act – Allows scientists on officially classed
research vessels access to the same benefits as seamen, without having to qualify under the
Jones Act or sign seaman’s papers.
P&I – Protection and Indemnity – The marine equivalent of Automobile Liability, it covers
the liability of a boat owner for bodily injury and property damage. It may include or
exclude liability to captain or crew.
SRLL – Ship Repairers Legal Liability – Physical damage to vessels, their cargo, and
equipment in your care custody and control for the purpose of being repaired, or serviced.
StLL – Stevedores Legal Liability – Liability for cargo being loaded or unloaded from a
vessel and damage to a vessel. Usually written with Terminal Operators Legal Liability in
a combined form.
TLL – Terminal Operators Legal Liability – Liability for cargo in your care custody and
control at a terminal prior to loading or after discharge from a vessel. Most commonly
written in combination with Stevedores Legal Liability.
Towers Liability – Liability to a vessel and its cargo that you are towing or pushing.
Umbrella Or marine umbrella – A combined excess policy. Sometimes has a dropdown
provision. May or may not be excess over EL, Automobile or other non-marine policies.
Wordings vary greatly.
USL&H – Longshoreman’s and Harbor Workers Compensation Act. (Actually should be
LHWCA). It is a federal workers compensation program designed predominately for
Wet Charter – The charter of a vessel with a captain/crew.
WHLL – Wharfingers Legal Liability The marine version of “garage keepers legal
liability.” Covers damage to vessels and their cargo which is in the insured’s care custody
and control for storage, mooring, docking etc. Usually specifically excludes any repair